A patient may develop a hole in the macula if certain risk factors are present.


Risk factors for formation of a macular hole:

(1) female 50-70 years of age

(2) ocular trauma

(3) lightning

(4) pathologic myopia (myopic chorioretinal degeneration, page 1108 in Gold and Lewis)

(5) vitelliform dystrophy (Best disease or central exudative retinal detachment, page 1123-1124 Gold and Lewis)

(6) after cataract surgery

(7) after intense retinal laser therapy (for retinal reattachment)

(8) after retinal cryopexis (pexis = surgical fixation)


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