Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is associated with exercise intolerance. This can impact the patient's quality of life.


(1) dyspnea

(2) fatigue


Risk factors for exercise intolerance:

(1) severity of PAH

(2) deconditioning

(3) heart failure

(4) right ventricular dysfunction

(5) arterial oxygen desaturation

(6) anemia (often iron deficiency)


Changes seen on exercise testing:

(1) reduced peak oxygen uptake

(2) early anaerobic threshold

(3) reduction in peak exercise work rate

(4) reduction in heart rate reserve

(5) ventilatory inefficiency (increaed VE to VCO2 ratio)

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