An HIV-positive patient may be at increased risk for deep vein thrombosis (DVT).


Risk factors for DVT in an HIV-positive patient:

(1) malignancy, especially Kaposi's sarcoma

(2) vasculitis

(3) decreased protein S and/or protein C

(4) decreased antithrombin III

(5) dyslipidemia

(6) cigarette smoking

(7) opportunistic infections (with release of tissue thromboplastin)

(8) antiphospholipid antibodies

(9) elevated Factor VIII

(10) elevated serum homocysteine

(11) decreased fibrinolysis (which may be due to release of cytokines)


In addition:

(1) an HIV-positive patient treated with heparin is at increased risk for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT).

(2) an HIV positive patient is at risk for thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)


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