Amiodarone can cause pulmonary toxicity. The risk increases if certain risk factors are present.


Risk factors for amiodarone pulmonary toxicity:

(1) higher dose, either as daily dose and/or cumulative dose (see below)

(2) male gender

(3) older age (will arbitrarily use age > 60 years in the implementation)

(4) pre-existing lung disease

(5) ethnic or racial predisposition

(6) therapy with supplemental oxygen at high concentration and/or with mechanical ventilation


Doses and durations associated with risk for pulmonary toxicity:

(1) >= 400 mg per day for >= 2 months (cumulative dose >= 24 g, or 144 g/year)

(2) >= 200 mg per day for >= 2 years (cumulative dose >= 146 g)


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