Acute hemorrhage into the adrenal gland may occur either with or without ("spontaneously") the presence of certain risk factors.


Conditions associated with acute adrenal hemorrhage:

(1) hypoxemia in a premature or seriously ill newborn

(2) sepsis (Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome)

(3) thrombosis with hypercoagulable state (antiphospholipid antibodies, heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, DIC)

(4) excessive anticoagulation therapy (heparin or warfarin, often during the first 2 weeks of therapy)

(5) trauma

(6) spontaneously during pregnancy or in the early post-partum period

(7) vascular malformation or aneurysm

(8) severe hypertension, including preeclampsia

(9) postoperative, typically after abdominal surgery

(10) complication of adrenal venography

(11) cardiac disease


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