Achilles tendinopathy is associated with a number of risk factors.

Risk factors for Achilles tendinopathy:

(1) older age

(2) obesity

(3) hereditary factors (blood group O, HLA type, etc)

(4) ischemia

(5) hypoxemia

(6) hyperthermia

(7) foot malformation (varus or valgus, pes planus or cavus)

(8) abnormal foot pronation

(9) leg length discrepancy

(10) muscle weakness and/or imbalance

(11) joint laxity and/or connective tissue disorder

(12) decreased flexibility

(13) corticosteroid therapy

(14) therapy with fluoroquinolone antibiotics

(15) use of anabolic steroids

(16) drugs of abuse (marijuana, heroin, cocaine)

(17) excessive loading (speed, type of movement, etc)

(18) footwear

(19) sportswear

(20) training surface

(21) overtraining and overuse

(22) fatigue

(23) poor technique

(24) exposed to adverse environmental conditions (temperature extremes, humidity, etc)

(25) poor or improper equipment

(26) tendinopatthy in the opposite Achilles tendon

(27) history of Achilles tendinopathy

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