A clinical deficiency in essential fatty acids is rare but can occur if certain risk factors are present.
Poor intake or malabsorption:
(1) cystic fibrosis
(2) acrodermatitis enteropathica
(3) fat malabsorption
(5) anorexia nervosa
(6) severe malnutrition
(1) after severe trauma
(2) after severe burn
(3) with prolonged infection or sepsis
(1) patients receiving long term parenteral nutrition with high glucose but without lipid
(2) refeeding in kwashiorkor with a high protein, low fat diet
(1) neonates, especially premature infants (low stores, increased requirements)
(2) peripheral vascular disease (? associated with concurrent bowel ischemia)
(3) multiple sclerosis
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