Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction may be associated with one or more risk factors.


NOTE: Cerebral vasoconstriction can occur with subarachnoid hemorrhage and other triggers as a solitary event. The reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome involves multiple episodes.


Factors that may be associated with reversible cerebral vasoconstriction:

(1) pregnancy with or without preeclampsia or eclampsia

(2) postpartum with or without eclampsia

(3) physical exertion

(4) drugs (see below)

(5) drugs with a potential for abuse (see below)

(6) blood transfusion

(7) intravenous immune globulin infusion

(8) hypercalcemia

(9) porphyria

(10) pheochromocytoma

(11) carcinoid syndrome

(12) unruptured saccular cerebral aneurysm

(13) head trauma

(14) spinal subdural hematoma

(15) after a carotid endarterectomy

(16) after a dural puncture

(17) after an open neurosurgical procedure


Drugs associated:

(1) phenylpropanolamine

(2) pseudoephedrine

(3) ergotamine tartrate

(4) methylergonovine

(5) bromocriptine

(6) lisuride

(7) SSRI (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors)

(8) sumatriptan

(9) isometheptene

(10) tracrolimus

(11) cyclophosphamide

(12) erythropoietin


Drugs of abuse:

(1) cocaine

(2) amphetamine and its derivatives

(3) marijuana

(4) LSD

(5) ecstasy


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