Northway et al identified 4 stages in the progression of bronchopulmonary dysplasia based on the changes in the chest X-rays.
resembles uncomplicated respiratory distress syndrome (patchy infiltrate with segmental atelectasis, granular appearance)
dense parenchymal opacification
"bubbly" or spongy appearance
chronic lung disease with emphysematous areas and thickened interstitium (fibrosis and hypertrophied peribronchial muscle)
• The original sequence of progression through 4 stages is rarely seen today due to changes in management and ventilatory support. Stages II and III are infrequent, and the final end-stage has a more homogeneous appearance with less hyperexpansion.
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Specialty: Pulmonology, Pedatrics