Boland et al listed various kinds of abuse. Psychological abuse be as serious as physical abuse in its effects. The authors are from Hertfordshire Turst and Creffield Medical Centre in England.


Psychological abuse may take the form of:

(1) emotional abuse

(2) threats of harm

(3) threats of abandonment

(4) deprivation of contact or isolation

(4) humiliation or shaming

(5) blaming

(6) controlling

(7) intimidation

(8) coercion

(9) harassment

(10) verbal abuse

(11) ostracization


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