Enteral nutrition admixtures need to be protected from light, or else a number of problems may arise..


Sources of light:

(1) direct sunlight

(2) phototherapy or lighting fixtures


Problems that may occur if enteral mixtures are exposed to light:

(1) photodegradation of vitamins and nutrients, with loss of potency (vitamin A, vitamin C, riboflavin, tryptophan, methionine, histidine)

(2) generation of hydrogen peroxide and organic peroxides, resulting in toxic compounds and causing vasoconstriction


These hazards may be of particular importance to premature neonates, since their nutritional reserves are limited and metabolic systems are immature.


The concentration of multivitamins (especially riboflavin) should be controlled in order to keep peroxidation to a minimum. Higher levels of multivitamins are associated with increased generation of peroxides.


Protection from light may take the form of:

(1) light shielded container, either by tinting or wrapping in aluminium foil

(3) light-shielded tubing


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