Lejon et al identified prognostic factors for a patient being treated for late-stage Trypanosoma brucei gambiense trypanosomiasis. These can help identify patients who are at risk for treatment failure. The authors are from the Institute of Tropical Medicine in Antwerp, Institut National de Recherche Biomedicale in Kinshasa, Centre de Developmmement Integrale-Bwamanda in Bwamanda (Democratic Republic of Congo), and Faculte de Medecine in Limoges (France).



(1) CSF white blood cell count

(2) CSF IL-10 concentration in pg/mL

(3) CSF latex titer for IgM

(4) CSF total protein in mg/L


Findings prior to therapy that are indicative of probable treatment failure:

(1) CSF WBC >= 102 per µL

(2) CSF IL-10 >= 37 pg/mL

(3) CSF latex titer for IgM >= 1:32

(4) CSF total protein >= 674 mg/L


Findings at 6 months indicative of a low risk for treatment failure:

(1) CSF WBC count <= 5 per µL


Findings at 12 months indicative of a high risk for treatment failure:

(1) CSF WBC >= 8 per µL

(2) CSF latex titer for IgM >= 1:4


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