Klippel listed criteria for the diagnosis of Primary Raynaud's phenomenon. This combined the criteria of Allen and Brown with those of LeRoy and Medsger.



(1) history of symptoms for >= 2 years

(2) occurrence of vasospastic attacks

(3) bilateral involvement of the extremities

(4) either no gangrene or gangrene limited to the skin of the fingertips

(5) symmetric peripheral pulses

(6) normal nailfold capillary microscopy


Laboratory testing:

(1) normal erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)

(2) negative antinuclear antibody (ANA)


Exclusions: no explanation identified after a thorough investigation (drug, disease, occupation).


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