Carney et al performed a systematic review of studies on concussion in order to identify prevalent and consistent indicators. The authors are from Oregon Health & Science University, the Brain Trauma Foundation, Stanford University, Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City, Portland State University and the US Army Combat Casualty Care Research Program.


Patient selection: concussion


Time After the Event

disorientation or confusion

immediately after

impaired balance

within 1 day

slow reaction time

within 2 days

impaired verbal learning and/or memory

within 2 days


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