Dalal et al reported the various ways a pediatric patient at risk for sudden cardiac arrest may present for evaluation. The authors are from multiple universities in the United States.

Conditions that can result in sudden cardiac arrest include:

(1) hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

(2) long QT syndrome (LQTS)

(3) catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT)

(4) anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the right sinus of Valsalva (ALCA-R)


Presentations include:

(1) episode of sudden cardiac arrest

(2) abnormal or suspicious family history

(3) exercise-induced chest pain (for ALCA-R)

(4) syncope, including exercise-induced syncope


The presence of one or more of these factors should prompt an appropriate referral for cardiac evaluation.

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