A woman may notice a change in oral health during pregnancy, with deterioration over multiple pregnancies. Pregnancy-associated periodontal disease may correlate with adverse outcomes of the pregnancy.

Factors favoring periodontal disease:

(1) swelling of the gingiva (pregnancy gingivitis)

(2) gestational diabetes

(3) poor oral hygiene (with pre-pregnancy periodontitis)

(4) unhealthy behaviors

(5) altered host defenses associated with pregnancy

(6) change in saliva and/or oral flora


Additional factors:

(1) lower educational attainment

(2) lower socioeconomic status

(3) no or irregular dental checkups


A pregnant woman should make an effort to optimized dental and oral self-care.

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