Leslie et al listed a number of factors predictive for difficult tracheal intubation. These can help to identify a patient who may benefit from awake intubation or other approach.


Predictors for difficult tracheal intubation:

(1) history of difficult tracheal intubation

(2) rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis or other form of arthritis affecting the head, neck or spine

(3) infection of the head and neck (dental abscess, Ludwig’s angina, epiglottitis, croup, other)

(4) tumor of the head or neck (tongue, thyroid, larynx, other)

(5) radiation therapy to mouth or neck

(6) previous surgery on the airway

(7) previous neck surgery

(8) unstable cervical spine fracture

(9) facial fracture

(10) airway edema

(11) airway burns

(12) morbid obesity

(13) acromegaly

(14) hereditary disorder affecting the head and neck (Pierre-Robin syndrome, Treacher-Collins syndrome, Klippel-Feil syndrome, Down’s syndrome, Goldenhar’s syndrome, etc)


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