Lee et al reviewed lumbar spinal surgery for predictors of complications. One group of predictors deals with urologic complications. The authors are from the University of Washington and Harborview Medical Center in Seattle.

Patient selection: age >= 18 years of age


Urologic complications: renal insufficiency, renal retention, urinary tract infection (UTI), Foley catheter trauma



(1) surgical invasiveness index for spinal surgery (ranges from 0 to 48)


Predictors for urologic complications from multivariate analysis:

(1) diagnosis of trauma (vs degenerative; relative risk 2.1)

(2) rheumatoid arthritis (relative risk 3.0)


Other factors from univariate analysis:

(1) age > 65 years

(2) COPD

(3) bleeding disorder or history of deep vein thrombosis (DVT)

(4) renal disease

(5) dementia

(6) combined approach

(7) surgical invasiveness >5

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