Lee et al reviewed lumbar spinal surgery for predictors of complications. One group of predictors deals with pulmonary complications. The authors are from the University of Washington and Harborview Medical Center in Seattle.

Patient selection: age >= 18 years of age


Pulmonary complications: ARDS, acute hypoxemia, empyema, hemothorax, pleural effusion, pneumonia, pneumothorax, pulmonary embolus, respiratory arrest



(1) surgical invasiveness index for spinal surgery (ranges from 0 to 48)


Predictors for pulmonary complications from multivariate analysis:

(1) COPD (relative risk 4.0)

(2) surgical invasiveness >5 (relative risk 4.6)

(3) diagnosis of trauma (vs degenerative; relative risk 4.1)


Other factors from univariate analysis:

(1) age > 65 years

(2) diabetes

(3) cerebrovascular disease

(4) hypertension

(5) renal disease

(6) dementia

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