Lee et al reviewed lumbar spinal surgery for predictors of complications. One group of predictors deals with hematological complications. The authors are from the University of Washington and Harborview Medical Center in Seattle.

Patient selection: age >= 18 years of age


Hematologic complications: coagulopathy, deep vein thrombosis, major bleeding, transfusion



(1) surgical invasiveness index for spinal surgery (ranges from 0 to 48)


Predictors for hematological complications from multivariate analysis:

(1) age >= 40 years (odds ratio 2.0 for 41 to 64 years; odds ratio 2.3 for >= 65 years)

(2) surgical invasiveness >5 (odds ratio 2.6)


Other factors from univariate analysis:

(1) BMI > 35 kg per square meter

(2) congestive heart failure

(3) rheumatoid arthritis

(4) renal disease

(5) anemia

(6) bleeding disorder

(7) diagnosis infection or neoplasm (vs degenerative)

(8) revision surgery

(9) combined approach

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