Lee et al reviewed lumbar spinal surgery for predictors of complications. One group of predictors deals with cardiac complications. The authors are from the University of Washington and Harborview Medical Center in Seattle.

Patient selection: age >= 18 years of age



(1) surgical invasiveness index for spinal surgery (ranges from 0 to 48)


Cardiac complications: air embolism, cardiac arrest, arrhythmia, CHF, hypertension, hypotension, myocardial infarction or ischemia, inappropriate or inadequate fluid therapy, hypothermia


Predictors for cardiac complications from multivariate analysis:

(1) age > 65 years

(2) congestive heart failure

(3) cerebrovascular disease

(4) surgical invasiveness (reference <= 5)


Other factors from univariate analysis:

(1) age 40 to 65 years

(2) diabetes

(3) previous myocardial infarct or cardiac incident

(4) COPD

(5) renal disease

(6) hypertension

(7) cancer

(8) revision surgery

(9) syncope or seizure

To read more or access our algorithms and calculators, please log in or register.