Swinamer et al developed an equation for predicting daily energy expenditure in critically ill, mechanically ventilated patients. This group of patients tends to have actual energy expenditures seriously underestimated by some of the routine energy expenditure equations such as that of Harris and Benedict. This study was done University of Alberta in Edmonton, Canada.

energy expenditure in kcal per day =

= (945 * (BSA in square meters)) – (6.4 * (age in years)) + (108 * (temperature in °C)) + (24.2 * (respiratory rate in breaths/min)) + (817 * (tidal volume in L/min)) - 4349



• body surface area can be calculated using the equation of Dubois and Dubois:


body surface area in square meters =

= ((weight in kg)^(0.425)) * ((height in cm)^(0.725)) * (0.007184)



• Only 15 out of 112 (about 13%) showed daily energy expenditures deviating > 15% from that predicted by the equation.

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