Chronic inflammation of the urinary bladder can cause benign exophytic lesions of the urinary bladder at any age.


Risk factors:

(1) indwelling urinary catheter

(2) vesical fistula

(3) other chronic inflammation of the urinary bladder mucosa


On cystoscopy there is cystitis with friable mucosa and exophytic lesions that may be multifocal.


Exophytic Component


slender, finger-like (width less than length)


thick with broad base (width equals length)


width greater than length



Histologic features:

(1) chronic inflammation

(2) edematous fibrovascular core

(3) nonbranching papillae

(4) variable reactive atypia


Differential diagnosis:

(1) papillary urothelial neoplasm


To read more or access our algorithms and calculators, please log in or register.