Some women with a lupus anticoagulant suffer fetal loss. Examination of the fetus and placenta can help identify these women.
(1) history of recurrent, unexplained miscarriage
(2) history of thrombotic episodes
(1) any infarct in a first or second trimester placenta
(2) an infarct in a third trimester placenta that is > 10% of placental disc volume
Placental vascular changes:
(1) thrombosis in placental blood vessels
(2) acute atherosis and/or intimal thickening (decidual arteriopathy)
(1) intra-uterine growth retardation
(2) cerebral or other vascular thrombosis
(3) fetal bradycardia during the second trimester
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Specialty: Obstetrics & Gynecology