Some women with a lupus anticoagulant suffer fetal loss. Examination of the fetus and placenta can help identify these women.


Maternal history:

(1) history of recurrent, unexplained miscarriage

(2) history of thrombotic episodes


Placental infarcts:

(1) any infarct in a first or second trimester placenta

(2) an infarct in a third trimester placenta that is > 10% of placental disc volume


Placental vascular changes:

(1) thrombosis in placental blood vessels

(2) acute atherosis and/or intimal thickening (decidual arteriopathy)


Fetal changes:

(1) intra-uterine growth retardation

(2) cerebral or other vascular thrombosis

(3) fetal bradycardia during the second trimester


To read more or access our algorithms and calculators, please log in or register.