HIV-infected patients develop peripheral arterial disease (PAD) at a relatively high rate compared to the general population. Periard et al identified risk factors associated with PAD in HIV-infected adults. The authors are participants in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study.


Criteria used to identify PAD - one or both of the following:

(1) ankle-brachial blood pressure index < 0.90 at rest

(2) decrease in ankle-brachial blood pressure index after exercise > 25% (post-exercise ABI < 0.75 * pre-exercise ABI)


Risk factors identified in multivariate analysis in patients >= 40 years of age:

(1) older age (an age > 50 years will be used in the implementation)

(2) diabetes mellitus

(3) long term smoking

(4) CD4 lymphocyte count < 200 per µL


The chief risk factor was the CD4 count, which had an odds ratio of 27.


A patient with multiple risk factors should be screened for PAD.


To read more or access our algorithms and calculators, please log in or register.