Giagio et al evaluate female athletes for pelvic floor dysfunction. They used a 2-step process with an initial screen and a follow-up questionnaire to triage patients. The authors are from University of Bologna, University of Genoa, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam and Azienda Ospedale Universita Padova in Italy and The Netherlands.

Patient selection: female athlete


Screening questions for pelvic floor dysfunction:

(1) usually have urine leakage

(2) usually have urine urgency

(3) usually have a bulge or something falling down in the vaginal area

(4) usually have stool or flatus beyond control

(5) usually have pain or discomfort in lower abdomen and/or genital region


If one or more of these symptoms are present, then the patient is referred to a pelvic floor dysfunction specialist.


If none of these symptoms are present, then the patient is asked the follow-up questionnaire.

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