There are different types of emphysema, depending on what part of the respiratory unit is affected.
Criteria for emphysema:
(1) permanent (not completely reversible)
(2) abnormal enlargement of airspaces distal to the terminal bronchiole
(3) associated with destruction and loss of the walls for the affected airspaces
(1) proximal acinar (centriacinar, centrilobular)
(2) distal acinar (paraseptal, subpleural)
(2) panacinar (panlobular)
dilated, may affect terminal bronchioles
alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency
Additional pathologic terms
(1) Irregular emphysema is a form of emphysema there is variable dilatation of the airspaces with fibrosis.
(2) Focal emphysema is a form of centrilobular emphysema.
(3) A bulla is an emphysematous space that is > 1 cm in diameter.
(4) A bleb is an air-filled space within the pleura.
(1) simple airspace enlargement
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