Outcome bias occurs if the outcome affects how a decision is evaluated on review. 


Decision Quality

Actual Outcome

Outcome Bias


good or fortunate

looked at favorably


bad or unfavorable

looked at negatively


People who are prone to this form of bias:

(1) patient or family members who are affected directly by the outcome

(2) someone with little or no experience with the issues or risks involved

(3) someone who feels the need to be judgmental

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