Inflammation of extraocular muscles can occur in a number of conditions.

Clinical presentation:

(1) painful diplopia

(2) ophthalmoplegia

(3) chemosis


CT or MRI may show enlargement of affected muscle.


Possible causes:

(1) autoimmune disease (SLE, inflammatory bowel disease, IgG4-related, Grave's disease, etc)

(2) drug reaction

(3) infectious myositis (parasitic, COVID-19, etc)

(4) paraneoplastic reaction

(5) idiopathic

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