Ochronosis in alkaptonuria is associated with a widespread arthropathy.
(1) discoloration of the urine
(3) ochronotic pigmentation
(1) widespread degenerative arthritis of major joints (hips, knees)
(2) alterations of the spine with low back pain
Changes that can be seen on ultrasonography:
(1) exudative or proliferative tenosynovitis
(2) synovial hypertrophy
(3) tendon or ligament calcifications
Imaging studies of the spine may show:
(1) relative sparing of the sacroiliac joint
(2) dense, wafer-like disk calcifications
(3) vacuum disks
(4) broad syndesmophytes
If surgery is performed, then affected joints and tissues may show dark pigmentation.
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