The "overlap syndrome" refers to a patient who has both obstructive sleep apnea and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).


Clinical features:

(1) obstructive sleep apnea

(2) COPD (with an obstructive ventilatory pattern on spirometry)

(3) hypoxemia and hypercapnia

(4) increased risk of developing pulmonary hypertension


Patients may require continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or noninvasive ventilation (NIV) at night, with or without supplemental oxygen.


Supplemental oxygen may be needed during the day if the patient has significant hypoxemia during the day (PaO2 < 55 mm Hg).


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