The American College of Surgeons (ACS) has developed a nomenclature for various conflicts of interest that might influence a surgeon. A surgeon may have a potential conflict of interest and not be biased by it.. A potential conflict of interest may exist without monetary or other inducement.


Corporate involvement:

(1) company founder

(2) ownership interest

(3) executive leadership

(4) equity

(5) scientific board advisor


Academic support:

(1) educational support

(2) equipment support

(3) industry-sponsored research grant


Intellectual property:

(1) patent holder

(2) royalties


Other sources:

(1) consulting

(2) salary

(3) speaker honorarium

(4) instructor honorarium

(5) other (see below)



• Stock ownership may not be a significant source of conflict if it is a small amount in an investment portfolio.

• “Other” includes: family member involved with company, product development, expert testimony, any honorarium, any grant, any advisory capacity, review panel, corporate board, committee participation, bartering arrangement.


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