Nightmare Disorder is a parasomnia which may be cause the patient some distress.

Criteria for nightmare disorder:

(1) disturbing or frightening dreams which may be accompanied by intensely negative feelings (dread, failure, humiliation, etc)

(2) usually associated with rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep

(3) history of awakening after disturbed dreams

(4) full alertness on awakening with clear recall of the dream

(5) one or both of the following:

(5a) delayed return to sleep

(5b) occurrence during the second half of the sleep period


Risk factors for the nightmare disorder:

(1) post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

(2) other psychiatric disorder

(3) medications affecting neurotransmitter levels in the CNS

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