Nightmare Disorder is a parasomnia which may be cause the patient some distress.
Criteria for nightmare disorder:
(1) disturbing or frightening dreams which may be accompanied by intensely negative feelings (dread, failure, humiliation, etc)
(2) usually associated with rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep
(3) history of awakening after disturbed dreams
(4) full alertness on awakening with clear recall of the dream
(5) one or both of the following:
(5a) delayed return to sleep
(5b) occurrence during the second half of the sleep period
Risk factors for the nightmare disorder:
(1) post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
(2) other psychiatric disorder
(3) medications affecting neurotransmitter levels in the CNS
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