Alderkamp and Baker developed a neurotoxicity scale to identify cognitive problems associated with epilepsy-related medications. It is a patient-based reporting instrument that can be used for other medications. The authors are Kempenhaeghe in the Netherlands and Liverpool in the England.


Statements - 24 items:


The patient has the option to mention other complaints not listed above.


The patient has a Likert scale of responses:



no problem


a mild problem


a moderate problem


a serious problem



If the statement is not relevant, then no answer is given.


score =

= SUM(points for the applicable statements)



• minimum score: 0

• maximum score for 24 statements: 72

• maximum score for a patient: depends on the total number of statements answered and if there are additional complaints noted.

• The higher the score, the more serious the cognitive interference.


percent of maximal score =

= (total score) * 100% / ((total number of questions answered) * 3)



• It is important to separate the effect of medications from those of concurrent diseases. The authors state that other factors that impair cognitive score such as seizure frequency did not influence the score.

• The scale was controlled for cross-cultural differences.



• construct validity: assessed using factor analysis with varimax rotation

• reliability: Cronbach alpha 0.95


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