A patient may develop neuropsychiatric problems after a stroke and sometimes these may be initial manifestation.

Neuropsychiatric manifestations of stroke may include:

(1) delirium

(2) depression

(3) delusional state including paranoia

(4) dementia

(5) mania

(6) monotonous speech and loss of affect

(7) abulia (inability to act decisively) or lassitude

(8) psychosis

(9) pathological laughing or crying

(10) catastrophic reaction

(11) anxiety

(12) confusion with or without amnesia

(13) akinetic mutism

(14) prosopagnosia (inability to recognize familiar faces)

(15) change in personality


Barriers in diagnosis:

(1) not being aware that a stroke occurred

(2) absence of neurological signs

(3) ascribing neurologic signs to depression or other psychiatric disorder

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