The presence of multiple vesicocutaneous or urethrocutaneous fistulas can result in the watering-can abdomen or perineum, depending on where the cutaneous openings are found.



(1) The presence of multiple fistulae between the urinary tract and the skin surface.

(2) A strong bladder contraction results in multiple urine streams, resembling water emerging from a watering can.

(3) The fistulae can be visualized on imaging studies if contrast material is instilled into the bladder prior to emptying.


Risk factors:

(1) urethral stricture, often from untreated gonorrhea or other venereal disease

(2) suprapubic cystostomy

(3) pelvic trauma or surgery

(4) bladder diverticulum

(5) large bladder calculi

(6) neoplasms


To read more or access our algorithms and calculators, please log in or register.