Hill et al developed an index for evaluating renal biopsies from a patient with lupus nephritis.. The final score is a compilation of 4 subindices. The authors are from Hopitaux Broussais, St. Louis, Henri Mondor and Bichat in Paris.

Patient selection: lupus nephritis


Specimen: renal biopsy



(1) glomerular activity index (GAI, from 0 to 24)

(2) tubulointerstitial activity index (TIAI, from 0 to 21)

(3) chronic lesions index (CI, from 0 to 15)

(4) immunofluorescence index (IFI, from 0 to 96)


biopsy index =

= ((glomerular activity index) / 8) + ((tubulointerstitial activity index) / 7) + ((chronic lesions index) / 5) + ((immunofluorescence index) / 32)



• The denominator for each parameter is one third of the maximum value)



• minimum biopsy index: 0

• maximum biopsy index: 12

• The higher the index the greater the severity of the lupus nephritis.



• The biopsy index and its components are affected by interobserver and intraobserver reproducibility.

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