Kazaryan et al modified a classification of Satava for unfavorable intraoperative incidents. The autors are from Oslo University and Skien Hospital in Norway.
Patient selection: patient with intraoperative incident
Change in Intraoperative Approach Required
Consequence for Patient
(1) Grade I: minor injury to adjacent organ; blood loss above normal
(2) Grade II: conversion from laparoscopic to open; significant blood loss; need to repair intraoperatively injured organ
(3) Grade III: retained instrument; major organ damage; catastrophic hemorrhage
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