A transient ischemic attack can be diagnosed when certain findings are present.

Criteria for transient ischemic attack (TIA):

(1) sudden onset of fully reversible neurological or retinal symptoms (see below)

(2) duration less than 24 hours

(3) 2 or more of the following:

(3a) all symptoms maximal in less than 1 minute

(3b) all symptoms occur simultaneously

(3c) all symptoms are deficits (no irritative symptoms such as photopsia)

(3d) no headache during or after the neurological symptoms for at least 1 hours

(4) does not have certain symptoms in isolation (see below)

(5) no evidence of acute infarction in the relevant area in neuroimaging

(6) findings cannot be better explained by another diagnosis


Common symptoms:

(1) hemiparesis

(2) hemihypesthesia

(3) aphasia

(4) neglect

(5) amaurosis fugax

(6) hemianopsia

(7) hemiataxia


Symptoms that should not be present in isolation (may be mixed with common symptoms):

(1) shaking

(2) diplopia

(3) dizziness

(4) vertigo

(5) syncope

(6) confusion

(7) unexplained falls

(8) amnesia

(9) hyperventilation-associated paresthesia

(10) decreased level of consciousness

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