A patient with severe aluminum poisoning may develop a microcytic anemia that reverses after removal of the aluminum.


Clinical features:

(1) risk factors for aluminum intoxication (industrial exposure, infusion of parenteral solutions containing aluminum, high doses of aluminum-containing phosphate binding agents, hemodialysis using water high in aluminum)

(2) other signs of aluminum intoxication (encephalopathy, osteomalacia, proximal myopathy)

(3) microcytic, hypochromic anemia

(4) resistance to erythropoietin

(5) significant elevation in serum aluminum levels (usually over 100 µg/L)

(6) reversal on removal of aluminum from the body



• Specimens for aluminum quantitation must be collected and handled properly to prevent contamination with environmental aluminum.


Coexisting conditions may include:

(1) iron deficiency

(2) anemia of chronic disease

(3) erythropoietin deficiency (if kidneys are severely damaged)


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