### Description

The method of Al-Alousi and Anderson to estimate the time of death uses organ and environmental temperature to calculate a temperature difference ratio which is then compared to a cooling curve. The method uses different cooling curves depending on whether the body is clothed or naked.

Organ temperature to measure:

(1) rectum

(2) liver

(3) brain

(4) any organ for which a cooling curve is available

temperature difference ratio =

= ((organ temperature in °C at time 1) - (environmental temperature in °C at time 1)) /  ((organ temperature in °C at time of death) - (environmental temperature in °C at time 1))

Liver, Body Naked

For temperature difference ratio >=0.23

mean time since death in hours at time 1 =

= (-39.477 * ((temperature difference ratio)^3)) + (104.578 * ((temperature difference ratio)^2)) - (103.96 * (temperature difference ratio)) + 38.859

For temperature difference ratio >=0.06

mean time since death in hours at time 1 =

= (863.727 * ((temperature difference ratio)^2)) - (405.879 * (temperature difference ratio)) + 67.726

For ratio < 0.06, time of death is assumed to be > 50 hours.

Liver, Body Covered

For temperature difference ratio >=0.5

mean time since death in hours at time 1 =

= (-40 * (temperature difference ratio)) + 40

For temperature difference ratio >=0.17

mean time since death in hours at time 1 =

= (163.487 * ((temperature difference ratio)^2)) - (191.52*  (temperature difference ratio)) + 75.143

For ratio < 0.17, time of death is assumed to be > 50 hours.

Rectum, Body Naked

For temperature difference ratio >=0.22

mean time since death in hours at time 1 =

= (29.677 * ((temperature difference ratio)^2)) - (61.847 * (temperature difference ratio))+32.17

For temperature difference ratio >=0.01

mean time since death in hours at time 1 =

= (320.2587 * ((temperature difference ratio)^2)) - (205.8496 * (temperature difference ratio)) + 49.8496

For ratio < 0.01, time of death is assumed to be > 50 hours.

Rectum, Body Covered

For temperature difference ratio >=0.33

mean time since death in hours at time 1 =

= (27.4789 * ((temperature difference ratio)^2))-(66.3977 * (temperature difference ratio)) + 38.91878

For temperature difference ratio >=0.01

mean time since death in hours at time 1 =

= (211.783 * ((temperature difference ratio)^2)) - (159.305 * (temperature difference ratio)) + 49.59259

For ratio < 0.01, time of death is assumed to be > 50 hours.

Limitations:

• The body temperature at the time of death may not be 37 °C.

• If the environmental temperature varies widely and is not constant, then the environmental temperature used may be misleading.

• Above 40-50 hours the curves flatten and may not be accurate.

• The cooling curves show a hatched area +/- 1 standard deviation, so that the estimates are only rough time indicators.