Medically unexplained dyspnea (MUD) refers to the sensation of dyspnea in a patient without a cardiopulmonary disease that can explain it.
Clinical features may include any of the following:
(1) a need to take deep inspirations
(2) feelings of the chest being compressed
(3) anxiety, restlessness or nervousness
(4) tingling sensation
in lips, face, fingers and/or toes
Clinical findings that are absent:
Negative workup with:
(1) normal cardiopulmonary examination
(2) normal ECG
(3) normal chest imaging studies
(4) normal spirometry
(5) normal arterial blood gas studies
(6) normal serum BNP
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