Medically unexplained dyspnea (MUD) refers to the sensation of dyspnea in a patient without a cardiopulmonary disease that can explain it.


Clinical features may include any of the following:

(1) a need to take deep inspirations

(2) feelings of the chest being compressed

(3) anxiety, restlessness or nervousness

(4) tingling sensation

in lips, face, fingers and/or toes


Clinical findings that are absent:

(1) wheezing

(2) cough

(3) expectoration

(4) palpitations

(5) edema


Negative workup with:

(1) normal cardiopulmonary examination

(2) normal ECG

(3) normal chest imaging studies

(4) normal spirometry

(5) normal arterial blood gas studies

(6) normal serum BNP


To read more or access our algorithms and calculators, please log in or register.