Buchaillet et al described markings associated with blows from a claw hammer. The authors are from the University of Angers in France.


A claw hammer has 2 striking surfaces:

(1) the bifurcated claw for removing nails

(2) the blunt head for driving nails, which is often round


The claw has 2 parallel projections:

(1) If these are relatively flat, then any blows tend to be short linear lacerations separated by a small gap of uninjured skin.

(2) If these are more pointed, then any blows tend to be puncture marks separated by a gap.


The head of the hammer makes injuries similar to any flat-headed hammer. These may include bruising corresponding to the shape of the head, depressed injuries or radial fractures.


The analysis of the physical evidence may be complicated if more than one weapon was used. In this case more than two patterns of injury can be found.


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