A variety of congenital malformations affecting both the trachea and esophagus may occur. These often present in the newborn period but may not be identified until the patient is an adult.
(1) upper esophageal segment
(2) lower esophageal segment
Upper Esophagus Segment
Lower Esophageal Segment
Type (Lantz, after Spitz)
connect to trachea
blind end, connects to trachea
connects to trachea
connects to trachea and lower segment
connects to upper segment
• Waterston et al also included: (a) a variant of Type A in which the connection to the trachea from the lower esophagus shows atresia (1.8%), and (b) a variant combining Types C and E where the 2 fistulas in C are fused into 1 (0.5%).
• Skandalakis gives a more extensive discussion and includes rarer variants such as fistulae to the main stem bronchi.
Percent (Lantz, after Spitz)
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Specialty: Gastroenterology, Pedatrics