A long umbilical cord is associated with a number of complications during a pregnancy.

Criteria for long umbilical cord: >= 80 cm


Complications of a long cord may include:

(1) nuchal cord or loops around torso

(2) prolapsed cord

(3) true knot

(4) fetal heart rate abnormality (fetal distress, cord compression)

(5) arrest of fetal descent and failure to progress

(6) birth asphyxia

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