Dugoua et al listed levels of evidence for therapeutic efficacy of an herbal remedy.
Evidence of Benefit Based on
statistically significant evidence of benefit in one or more systematic reviews
very strong scientific
statistically significant evidence of benefit in one or more properly conducted random control trials (RCT)
statistically significant evidence of benefit in one or more random control trials (RCT) with methodologic problems (small size, discrepancies, etc)
cohort or case control studies
case reports or case series
very weak scientific
expert opinion or in vitro experiments
based on traditional or historical use, including word of mouth
historical or traditional
• Something that is statistically significant may not be significant in practice.
• Performance of a systematic review presumes multiple properly conducted random control trials.
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