A number of conditions can cause a leopard spot pattern on fundoscopic exam.

The leopard-spot pattern refers to a uniform scattering of hyperpigmented spots, sometimes with adjacent pallor.


Causes of leopard spots in the fundus:

(1) leukemia (leukemic pigment epitheliopathy)

(2) lymphoid follicular hyperplasia

(3) Walker-Warburg syndrome

(4) central serous chorioretinopathy

(5) diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation (PDUMP)

(6) neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy

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