Birthing pools can be hazardous to the newborn, mother and attendants.



(1) Legionella pneumonia in the infant or mother

(2) Pseudomonas infection in the infant or mother

(3) exposure of attendants to pathogens in the mother’s body fluids

(4) exposure to chemicals used to treat the water

(5) electrical or thermal injury from water heater


Risk factors for an adverse outcome:

(1) makeshift pool

(2) inexperience

(3) use of a hot tub or other pool left heated for some time

(4) failure to observe appropriate precautions for body fluids

(5) failure to respond quickly to fever in the neonate


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