The International Reflux Study Committee proposed a classification scheme for grading the severity of vesicoureteral reflux.
(1) These are not described in the paper.
(2) Higher grades could be defined by several imaging techniques, including intravenous pyelograms.
(3) Grades I and II need to demonstrate reflux from the bladder into the ureters.
reflux into ureter only
reflux into ureter, pelvis and calices
no dilatation of caliceal fornices
mild or moderate dilatation and/or tortuosity of ureter
mild or moderate dilatation of renal pelvis
no or slight blunting of fornices
moderate dilatation and/or tortuosity of ureter
moderate dilatation of renal pelvis and calices
complete obliteration of the sharp angle of the fornices, but maintenance of the papillary impressions in the majority of calices
gross dilatation and tortuosity of ureter
gross dilatation of renal pelvis and calices
papillary impressions no longer visible in the majority of calices
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Specialty: Nephrology, Clinical Laboratory