An infant born to a mother with diabetes mellitus is at an increased risk for congenital malformations. This risk has been referred to as diabetic embryopathy.

Congenital malformations reported in an infant born to a mother with diabetes include:

(1) limb anomalies, including the caudal regression syndrome

(2) cardiac anomalies

(2a) atrial and/or ventricular septal defect

(2b) coarctation of the aorta

(2c) transposition of the great vessels

(2d) patent ductus arteriosus

(3) gastrointestinal malformations

(3a) atresia (duodenal, anorectal)

(3b) intestinal hypoplasia (small left colon syndrome)

(4) renal anomalies

(4a) renal agenesis

(4b) hydronephrosis

(4c) ureteral duplications

(5) CNS anomalies

(5a) anencephaly

(5b) microcephaly

(5c) neural tube defects (may be associated with inadequate folate supplementation)

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